The first fully functioning Passive House was actually a polar ship and not a house：the Fram of Fridtjof Nansen (1893).
Interest in conservation waned in the United States for many years.that time, the Europeans refined the application of these principles and spawned demand for high-performance products.
Dr. Wolfgang Feist, a German physicist, and Dr. Bo Adamson, a Swedish scientist, led the effort to refine the principles and develop the design techniques and the Passivhaus performance metric.The first Passivhaus was built in Darmstadt, Germany. Feist went on to found the Passivhaus Institut (PHI), which is headquartered in Darmstadt.some cities in Germany, such as Heidelberg, has began to legislate for passive house since 2015:
The UK law requires Net Zero buildings to be built in 2016;According to European Union legislation, new buildings across the EU must be near Net Zero and Net Positive passive buildings by From individual cities in Europe, to some leading countries, and then to the whole of Europe, Passive House have entered the stage of being forced by law. Passive House will become a powerful tool for EU countries to cope with global climate change.Passive building comprises a set of design principles used to attain a quantifiable and rigorous level of energy efficiency within a specific quantifiable comfort level.”Optimize your gains and losses” based on climate summarizes the approach. To that end, a passive building is designed and built in accordance with these five building-science principles: Employs continuous insulation throughout its entire envelope without any thermal bridging.The building envelope is extremely airtight, preventing infiltration of outside air and loss of conditioned air.Employs high-performance windows (double or triple-paned windows depending on climate and building type) and doors.
Solar gain is managed to exploit the sun’s energy for heating purposes in the heating season and to minimize overheating during the cooling season.Uses a minimal space conditioning system. Passive building principles can be applied to all building typologies – from single-family homes to multifamily apartment buildings, offices, and skyscrapers.
Passive design strategy carefully models and balances a comprehensive set of factors including heat emissions from appliances and occupants to keep the building at comfortable and consistent indoor temperatures throughout the heating and cooling seasons. As a result, passive buildings offer tremendous long-term benefits in addition to energy efficiency:
Continuous mechanical ventilation of fresh filtered air provides superb indoor air quality.
A comprehensive systems approach to modeling, design, and construction produces extremely resilient buildings.
Passive building principles offer the best path to Net Zero and Net Positive buildings by minimizing the load that renewables are required to provide.